Kurchatov town

Akimat of East Kazakhstan region


Head: Ondakanov Almas Amankolovich

Address: Republic of Kazakhstan, 071100, Kurchatov town, 4 Tauelsizdik St.,

Phone: 8-72251-3-36-01

Web site: kurchatov.vko.gov.kz

E-mail: akimatkurchatov@akimvko.gov.kz

On 21st August, 1947 the Central Committee of CPSU and Ministers' Council of USSR made a decision to build the nuclear research ground. The ground got a name "Training ground 2"; the code of military division was 52605.
The ground formation started in Zvenigorod of Moscow region. On 1st June, 1948 the first military divisions and separate subdivisions of the ground began the re-dislocation in the rayon of Moldary village of Maysky region, Pavlodar oblast.

The ground was situated on the following territories: Semipalatinsk, Pavlodar and Karaganda regions of the Republic of Kazakhstan. Total area made up 18500 sq.km., perimeter - about 600km. Each pointed regions respectively had 54%, 39% and 7% of the ground territory.

The works on testing preparation were finished in July, 1949. That very year, on 29th of August the nuclear device testing was conducted for the first time in USSR. I.V. Kurchatov directly implemented the researching work of the testing.
On 12 August, 1953 the first thermonuclear device and on 22 November, 1955 hydrogen bomb were tested on the ground.
Nuclear testing was conducted for the purpose of nuclear explosive assemblies and armament models examination. Later the testing was conducted for national economy purposes.
The ground was a complicated researching complex consisting of Kurchatov city itself (site "M") with laboratory-experimental base and the testing site "Balapan", site "№10", site "Degelen", site "Sh".

Simultaneously with the construction of testing sites residential administrative centre was formed, it located 60 km. north-eastern of the testing area and about 130 km eastern of Semipalatinsk city.
At first residential town represented itself a military garrison, changed its names in a view of highly secrecy known as "Moscow-400", after finishing the trunk-railway construction from Semipalatinsk city - Konechnaya station. Since 1947 got a status of the city and name Kurchatov. Internationally known as Semipalatinsk 21 (post office).
The history of the city is closely connected with the history of nuclear weapons' testing base building.
Mountain seismic station ("object 905") formed in 1947 by the Decree of USSR and CPSU for nuclear charges testing solved defence problem under postwar conditions.
The first commander of UP-2 was a lieutenant-general of the artillery Rozhanovich Peter Mikhaylovich (February-September, 1948), then a major-general of the artillery Kolesnikov Sergey Georgiyevich. The last commander of Semipalatinsk ground was a major-general Konovalenko Yury Vladimirovich. I.V. Kurchatov directly implemented the researching work of the first testing. For the first time military constructers landed in 1947 on the bank of Irtysh river (the largest inflow of the Ob river, one of the important rivers of Kazakhstan). Downstream, about 130 km. away from Semipalatinsk building and construction works on erection of housing, administrative and technical buildings were started.
It was very difficult to start building on a blank site. They constructed tented town for personnel with bath-house. Simultaneously they dug the earth-houses which were closed by boards and planked with veneer. It was very damply there. For lack of fuel the walls in officer earth-houses covered with hoarfrost. In winter was as cold as -40-50C° and for that reason there were the cases of frostbite and amputation of fingers and toes. After the forest there were severe snow-storms in February. Daily the personnel were given only 300 grams of bread for the snow-covered roads. Living conditions reminded those during the war: the same earth-houses, poor nutrition, cold, being far from the family, high security.
Striving for posed problems implementation, great will-power, tenacity, love for our won in the war country for all those reasons military constructers, commanders (Barsukov V.M.), lieutenant colonels (Evtikov M.A., Evdokimov A.A., Taran V.I.) at undertime finished the preparation of objects and buildings for nuclear testing conducting.
At the same time the military division 31516 consisting of two structural regiments built the living town (M site). So, 53 engineering regiment fulfilled the objects to build an updating, comfort military camp.
From time to time the town increased in size and people equipped with modern services and utilities. The personnel moved from earth-houses to dwelling houses and barracks, so that the first buildings were those on Lenin St., the building of HPS, headquarter of 52605 military division.
Two-stored cottage was constructed for the head of the ground. In 1949 "The House of Officers" was built. In 1950 the construction of water inlet station with the complex of waste-water treatment facility was finished. In summer, 1952 the first 36-stored houses (1st May St., 22 - Constructer Hose and Youth St., 2 (Victory) was laid. The foundation of two-stored barracks, surgeon department of the hospital was finished in 1953. The embankment on the bank of Irtysh river with stairs and stone oarsman was constructed in 1954. During 1956-1958 a bath complex, a bath-house, a new bakery and a shop were built in the garrison.
Only in 1952-1953 the garrison officers were allowed to settle there together with their families.
For solving the living program the construction of new blocks of buildings was started. Using macroporous concrete it took about 2-3 months to prepare the buildings for living.
Since 1955 the improvement and planting of trees and gardens started in the living camp.
In 1960th the are of green plantations made up 95 ha., including 35 000 of ornamental plants and 2 000 of fruit-trees and also a great variety of flowers.
In June, 1957 military divisions situated on Tchagan station (object №240) became a part of №31516 military division. There were 7th and 16th separate airport-construction regiments, 708th sector of specialized works, 412th separate assembly company and 1008th military hospital. Those divisions were formed in 1946-1947 and in 1954 arrived at the object for fulfillment of highly important works on defence construction. A lot of special and military complexes were built and at "Polovinka" an unofficial name of object №240 a new smaller camping town was constructed.

"O" site
Experimental-research part of the testing ground was constructed and fenced about 1500 km. from the Irtysh river (ERP). Several official buildings with researching laboratories (biological, radiochemical, physical measurements) and sector of defense technology testing were constructed on this territory as well. Nowadays it is Radiation Safety and Ecology Institute.

"Sh" site
In 1949-1962 this site was used for meteor testing. Overall 130 meteor testing was conducted including 30 surface nuclear shots; later this very site was used for experiments conducting in the nuclear physics area and arms testing and defense technology. Research nuclear reactor, bench complex, 6 hotels (on 330 places), 2 barracks (on 400 persons) were situated on the site.

"Balapan" site
It served for underground nuclear testing in the wells and model experiments with conventional explosive shots. 131 underground testing in the wells, 33 large-scale experiments on mining launchers were conducted on the site. There were 5 hotels on 850 places, 3 barracks on 1100 persons.
In 1988 in accordance with the agreement between USSR and USA (On underground testing restriction of nuclear weapons from 3 July, 1974) a cooperative experiment on control was conducted (CEC).

"№ 10" site
It was a basic site of nuclear reactors' state centre and new technologies (research-and-production association "Luch" ("Ray")). There were 2 research reactors, 3 hotels on 700 places, 1 barracks on 524 persons.

"Degelen" site
It was used for underground nuclear testing in the footrills. In all 223 shots were conducted. The site was suited for physical testing. It had a production and technical base of mining-sinking and constructing-and-mounting organizations, 6 hotels on 1200 places, 3 barracks on 1100.

All resting sites of the ground had a soldier club, bath, the central heating, water supply, sewerage.

Research and testing laboratories, physician and biologist, mathematician and physicist centres, as well as production bases of mining constructors, drillers, explorers, and constructors were situated in Kurchatov. It was a cosy planted with trees town, with fountains, parks and playgrounds, airport, railway and bus stations as well as with Culture Houses, museums, own TV and newspaper. To the sites where nuclear explosions took place concrete and asphalt roads spread for tens and hundreds kilometers to the steppe.
Round the clock the radar facilities and radio aerial defended and communicated with the centre and testing sites of the ground.
It was a closed flourishing town of military-industrial establishment (MIE). They were all conditions for research and experimental work.
In the town lived and worked the following well-known soviet physicists as I. Kurchatov, Y. Khariton, A. Sakharov, Y. Zeldovich. They are considered to be the fathers of nuclear weapons.

In 1990 the city numbered 20 000 people. Kurchatov was the main laboratory experimental base of testers.
Housing stock made up 176 056 sq.km. including 69 500 for military personnel. There were the airport with unpaved airfield, dairy factory, bakery, 8 infant schools, 3 schools, military hospital, medicosanitary office, a branch of clothes factory "Bolshevichyek", a number of small enterprises and cooperatives.
During the testing on 12th February, 1989 the radioactive gas discharged into the atmosphere that was an incitement to create the powerful antinuclear movement "Nevada-Semipalatinsk". After issuing the Decree of the President of Kazakhstan from 29.08.1991 №409 "On Semipalatinsk ground closure" the situation in the town became obscure. The rapid closure and dislocation of the Russian military divisions from the ground lead to full destruction of all research-and-production structure and social area of the town. The heads of the country made a decision to organize the National nuclear centre of the Republic of Kazakhstan on the basis of the complex of the former Semipalatinsk ground and corresponding scientific organizations and objects located on the territory of Kazakhstan that would safe the scientific potential. To continue the exploitation and produce the safety of the functioning of nuclear research reactors, to begin large-scale realization of Republican aimed scientific and technical program on radio-ecological study and rehabilitation of the territory of the former Semipalatinsk ground.
The activity of NNC attracted the considerable foreign investments, created additional workplaces in the city.

In 1995 Kazakhstan-American joint enterprise "CEMTEX" was formed for the purpose of scientific and technical potential conversion of the ground development and new technology usage. In 1996 - "KK Interconnect" this enterprise produced printed circuit boards and electronic devices. Kazakhstan-American joint enterprise's "FML Kazakhstan" basic direction was exploration work. The territory of SIP is characterized by concentration of perspective deposits in the first place of gold and cupper, as well as considerable resources of rock products. "Degelen" plant is occupied with mining and processing of natural stone "gabbro".
Kurchatov city is the centre of the former Semipalatinsk ground. It is situated in the north-western of East-Kazakhstan region. Geographic coordinates are the latitude 5044,3-5046,2 North and the longtitude 7830,5-7833,7 East. It spreads over 11 000 ha. Kurchatov city consists of the Kurchatov city itself, "Degelen" railway station (2 km.) and "Moldary" settlement (3-4 km.). The pointed settlements are not independent ones.

Climate. Kurchatov city is situated in the very southern part of Pavlodar region on the left bank of Irtysh river in the dry agro-climatic zone (subare of deserted and absinth-feather grass steppes). Climate is sharp continental with dry spring and summer periods, low and unstable atmospheric precipitates, strong wind during the whole year and especially in spring season, high temperature in summer and low in winter. Average amount of precipitation makes up 250 mm., and it should be noted that 90 mm. precipitation accounts for the period of intensive vegetation (May-July). The height of snow cover is small on open spaces it makes up 12 mm., annual average temperature is positive and comes to +2,4 degrees. Total temperature in separate years reaches +40-42, minimal temperature is -48-49, the warmest month is July, the coldest ones are January and February.
Dominant winds are south-western and western; the most intensive ones are in April, May and June. By the 1st of January, 2005 the population numbers 9900 people in comparison with 2003 the population increased in 400 persons. The ethnic composition consists of Kazakhs - 3 140 persons (31,7%), Russians - 5 960 persons (60,2%), other nations - 800 persons (8,1%). The state budget is the main source of the whole activity and life support of the city.
By 1st of January, 2005 there 104 juridical persons of all forms of property are registered, including small - 92, middle - 8, large - 4, in operation - 74 enterprises in the city.

Industry. There are 6 industrial plants in operation in Kurchatov: state plant "Communal diversified operational plant" (heat-, water-supply), Kurchatov branch VK REK (electro-energy production), "KK Interconnect" (production of printed circuit boards and electronic devices), PK "Azot" ("Nitrogen") (production of gas and liquid oxygen, acetylene), TOO KIP "Luch" ("Ray") (production and maintenance inspection of weight measuring system), "Degelen Tass" Ltd. (production of facing slabs out of natural stone).

Agriculture. No one agricultural enterprise and farm is registered on the city territory, but there are subsidiary farms and suburban cooperatives.

Business undertakings. According to the information of the Tax Committee there are 292 subjects of small-scale business where employed 629 persons in the city. Including 29 - small enterprises, 98 physical persons work on licences, , 98 on certificates, 67 - on simply declaration. There are 3 bakeries in the city (Nadeyev, Vdonin, Kovalyeva).

There are 3 monuments in the city:

The Victory monument is constructed in 1985 by the architect from Pavlodar, military constructers (31516th military division) and soldiers of 52605th military division. The opening of this monument took place on 9th of May, 1985.
The monument of Military constructors was raised in 1972. On 10th of August was its grand opening. The architect was an honoured worker of culture of Russian Federation Koneyev Georgy Alexandrovich. The monument was erected to the military constructors who built the town (1947-1972).

 

Дата создания / изменения страницы: 09.02.2012 / 03.09.2017