Semey city is the second largest city of East-Kazakhstan region in western region. The city is situated on the both banks of Irtysh river.
Its territory is 27 500 sq.km. including rural districts. Geographic centre of super-continent Eurasia is situated at the intersection of latitude 50 North and longitude 80 East to the East from Greenwich, 40 km. to the West from Semey city city in Degelen mountains.
Climate of the region is determined by significant geographic position its greatest removal on the continent from the oceans. Its territory is opened to the Arctic Basin, but isolated from the influence of Indian Ocean by the highest Asia mountain system.
The sharp continental climate of the city is a result of high amplitude of annual and daily temperatures. In winter it can be cold as - 45°C, in summer it can be hot as +45°C
The city numbers as high as 300 000 people.
Semey city city or in Kazakh language Semey spreading over the both banks of the Irtysh river is one of the largest and the most beautiful cities of the country - not only local residents but also domestic and foreign guests think this way as well - "spiritual capital" of Kazakhstan.
Semey city history
Semipalatinsk city city was founded in 1718 in accordance with a well known Decree of Peter I on Eastern land defence and Irtysh streamside fortifying constructed from 1714 till 1720.
In autumn, 1718 Semey city ay fortress was reinforced under lieutenant colonel P. Stupin's supervision.
In course of time Semey city ay fortress founded as a frontier and military-defence post developed and became an important trade city not only between Russia and Kazakhstan but also between Russian, Middle Asia and Western China. From the time of Semey city foundation joungar Kalmyks, Bukhars, Tashkents, Kakands came there for trade.
In 1776 for laying the foundation of fortress on a new project captain I.G. Andreyev was detached by the governor-general of Western Siberia. He as a talented engineer on a profession rebuilt those fortresses, constructed the bridges, roads, removed maps and plans of routs, redoubts, outposts and other military fortifications. Residents, military personnel, Kazaks and a part of trade persons of the old fortress began to move in the new fortress.
Grand opening of Semey city region was held on the 1st October, 1854. Being closed city Semey city at once turned out to be regional one. A new approved region became a large one in the Russian Empire.
The city duma and court was established.
From 1873 Semey city city had a telegraph, and from 1910 - telephone and the first water pipe in Kazakhstan.
Since 1906 the shipping on the upper Irtysh had been officially opened.
At the end of XIX-XX centuries the industry mainly was for primary feed conversion in Semey city region. At the beginning of XX century large Russian firms and cloth factories of military department manufactured wool, skin.
By 1863 there were 2 educational institutions, 1 uyezd school with female school attached to it, 2 church-and-parish schools, 14 Kazak and 9 private Tatar school in the city.
At the end of XIX - beginning of XX century male and female classical gymnasium, teacher's seminary worked in the city.
Mukhtar Auezov and Kanysh Satpayev studied at the teacher's seminary.
A Great Russian writer Fyedor Mikhaylovich Dostoyevsky lived more than 5 years (1854-1859) in Semey city written there such unfading works as "Notes from Dead House", "Uncle's dream", "Stepanchikovo village and its inhabitants". Fyedor Mikhaylovich Dostoyevsky met with P.P. Semyenov-Tyanshansky, Tchokan Valikhanov and G. Potanin there.
A student of Petersburg University E.P. Mikhayelis, members of the "Narodnaya Volya" N. Dolgopolov, S. Gross, P. Lobanovsky, A. Leontyev, N. Konshin and other ones served a deportation in Semey city . They conducted a scientific, cultural and educational work.
For a long time a Great Kazakh enlightener Abai Kunanbayev lived in Semey city . He is an outstanding expert of culture and life of Kazakhs, a well-known interpreter of Kazakh traditions, ancient laws, genealogies, legends and ethnographic terminology.
A weekly edition of "Sary-Arka" was published from June, 1917 in Semey city city. Editors of this very newspaper were R. Marsekov and K. Gabbasov. The articles of A. Bukeykhanov, F. Baytursynov, M. Dulatov, F. Ermekov, M. Moldybayev, Zh. Akpayev and many other honoured workers of Alash movement were published on its pages.
Till 1928 Semey city city was a principal town of province, later district one; in 1932 the republic was divided into regions, and at first Semey city was a centre of East-Kazakhstan region, and from 1939 became Semey city region.
In prewar times a large enterprises were built in the city. Turksib was the most important road the north part of it started from Semey city . One of the powerful enterprises of food industry was a meat packing factory built during the first year of five-year plan in Semey city . The city was a centre of large-scale cattle-breeding region with a great variety of raw materials. At the same time, together with meat packing plant, a big grinding factory, tanning plant with new equipment and in 1938 sheepskin factory with a special laboratory were constructed. Up-dating for that time shipyard was built.
In 1941 on the territory of the region the 238th and the 8th rifle divisions were formed. On 3rd of May, 1942, by the Decree of Supreme Soviet Presidium of USSR the 238th rifle division was rewarded with the Combat Red Banner for mass heroism and on the 24th of May by the Order of People's Defence Commissar it was renamed in the 30th guards division. On 3rd of November, 1944, the 30th guards division honorary named "Rizhskaya". On 6th of May, 1946 this very division was disbanded. More than 13 000 warriors got government awards for courage and heroism.
As far as the 8th division is concerned it was formed in Semey city and Ayagoz cities in December, 1941 - March, 1942. At first it fought a war under Voronezh, then took part in Kurskaya Duga Battle. On 5th of March the division honorary named "Yampolskaya".
56 residents of Semey city were awarded with high title of Soviet Union Hero (M. Abeulov, V.V. Butorin, Z. Belibayev, V.A. Zasyadko, M.K. Merkulov, N.N. Silin and other)
13 persons became the cavaliers of Glory Order of three degrees (F. Adilbayev, M. Aubakirov, P.P. Borkov, N.F. Kruzhelev, F.E. Maslin, V.N. Kondratyev, V.A. Osipov, S. Rubayev, B. Khaydarov and other).
Semey city is one of the cultural and historic centres not only of East-Kazakstan but the whole Republic. There are Abai and F.M. Dostoyevsky museums, the oldest museum of local lore of Kazakhstan and Western Siberia, art museum named after the Nevzorovs, a large number of libraries.
There are two theatres - Kazakh musicical and dramatic theatre named after Abai and Russian dramatic theatre named after F.M. Dostoyevsky.
Semey city is the origin of Kazakhstan football as well as the first national circus where acted a world-known Kazakh Batyr Khadzhimukan Manaytpasov. Semey city sportsmen such as the first participator of Olympiad Gusman Kosanov, Leonid Nikitenko, Vasily Yarkov, Zhaksylyk Ushkempirov, Daulet Turlykhanov glorified Kazakhstan.
Residents of Semey city city are proud of their countrymen: Abai Kunanbayev, Shakarim Kudayberdiyev, Aset Naymanbayev, Amre Kashaubayev, Kokbai Zhanatayev, Akhat Kudayberdiyev, Zhusipbek Aymauytov, Magzhan Zhumabayev, Mukhtar Auezov, Kanysh Satbayev, Viktor Selevin, Sapargali Begalin, Kayum Mukhamedkanov, Mukan Tulebayev, Aytkesh Tolganbayev, Beken Zhamakayev, Tursynkhan Abdrakhmanova, Toleu Kobdikov, Kulyash Sakiyeva, Abilkasym Zhanbyrbayev, Shaker Abenov, Kamen Orazalin, Zhanybek Karmenov, Rollan Seysenbayev, Medeu Sarseke, Bibigul Tulegenovna, Roza Rymbayeva, Zhaksylyk Ushkempirov, Daulet Turlykhanov.
City economical activity
From subsidy city Semey city became a donor one. Its industry giant rose: cement factory, meat packing plant, tan and fur association, building materials plant, machine-building and tank-repairing plants. Considerable growth is noticed in production and distribution of electric power, gas and water, heat energy.
The leading place in fuel industry is the extraction of coal deposit "Karazhyra" explored in 1957. Prospected coal resources increase 1 bln. tonnes. Coal production is by means of open-cut mining. Annually, the enterprises mine and sell more than 3 mln. tonnes coal a year. Suzdal gold-ore deposit situated 50 km. from Semey city city was discovered in 80th of the XX century.
Ltd. "Andas Altyn" was formed on the basis of gold-ore deposits of Murkunsky zone (30 km. from the city) and Miyaly (120 km from the city). Ore mining is by open-cutting.
The following join-stock companies as "Semey city machine-building plant", "Kazakhstancable", "Gasmash", "Reinforce plant" are engaged in machine-building.
Ltd. "Gamma" has been working from 1992, its produced audio-and video cassettes, jalousies and furniture. The production is realized in Kazakhstan. Monthly output by using Japan equipment is about 1 mln. audio-and video cassettes.
The plants of construction industry fully work on local raw materials. Such join-stock companies as "Cement", "Silicate", "Tasoba", private enterprise "Asbestos cement items plant", a number of plants of precast concrete produce cement, slate, brick, concrete items for different purposes. The production of facing slabs out of gabbrostone, marble, granite is developed.
Semey city skin-fur complex is the largest producer of fur materials and skin semi-finished products in the region.
Ltd. "Miras" is formed on the basis of well-known association "Bolshevichyek". Ltd. "Miras" performs the government work on sewing the uniform for solders of the Ministry of Defence of Kazakhstan, home and frontier troops and other force structures.
The sewing of national clothes, dressing gowns for women and girls, medical smocks is also developed in the region.
Join-stock company "Semey city flour-and-mixed fodder plant" is one of the largest plants of the Republic consisting of flour plant - 505 tonnes of grain processing daily, mixed fodder plant with output 1100 tonnes of mixed fodder daily.
Food industry is represented by Semey city meat-packing plant, dairy production, bakeries, winery-and-vodka factories, bier and non-alcoholic drinks.